- Co-published with: Red Publishing
- Paperback ISBN: 9781552665305
- Paperback Price: $19.95 CAD
- Publication Date: Sep 2012
- Rights: World
- Pages: 264
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The Ugly Canadian
Stephen Harper’s Foreign Policy
Stephen Harper’s foreign policy documents the sordid story of the Canadian government’s sabotage of international environmental efforts, a government totally committed to tar sands producers and a mining industry widely criticized for abuses. Furthermore, this sweeping critique details Harper’s opposition to the “Arab Spring” democracy movement and his backing of repressive Middle East monarchies, as well as his support for a military coup in Honduras and indifference to suffering of Haitians following the earthquake that devastated their country. The book explores Canada’s extensive military campaign in Libya, opposition to social transformation in Latin America and support for a right-wing Israeli government. With an eye to Canada’s growing international isolation, The Ugly Canadian is a must read for those who would like to see Canada adopt a more just foreign policy.
Praise for the book...
”Stephen Harpers’ government has fundamentally changed Canada’s foreign policy in a way most Canadians do not understand. The notion of the Ugly Canadian may be hard to accept but it is true and I for one am deeply grateful to Yves Engler for this important book.”- Maud Barlow, National Chairperson of the The Council of Canadians
”A damning chronicle of Stephen Harper’s international misdeeds.”–Michael Byers, Canada Research Chair in Global Politics and International Law, University of British Columbia
”Ugly Canadian is a well written, thoroughly researched, powerful indictment of the Harper government’s radical shift to the right in foreign policy. Whether it is demonstating callous indifference to global eco-issues, taking an absolutist pro-Israel Middle East stance, meddling militarily in Libya, Haiti and Afghanistan, or rebirthing the notion of a warrior spirit, Canada can no longer be considered a peace loving middle power. This book is more than a wakeup call, it is a call to arms for Canadians to take note of where we are headed on the international stage–before it is too late.”–Scott Taylor, Editor Esprit de Corps Magazine
”One of Yves Engler’s previous books helped give me the idea to hold a Stop Harper sign in Parliament. This book provides rich evidence why Harper must be stopped.”–Brigette Depape (rogue Senate Page)
Introduction • Tar Sands Diplomacy • Mining the World • Against the Arab Spring • Bombing Libya • Best Friend of the Israeli Right • At War with Iran and Lebanon • Canadian Warrior • Lying About Afghanistan • Militarizing Post-earthquake Haiti • Stopping Social Change in Latin America • Conclusion: Making Foreign Policy an Election Issue
About the Author
Former Vice President of the Concordia Student Union, Yves Engler has been dubbed “one of the most important voices on the Canadian Left today” (Briarpatch), “in the mould of I.F. Stone” (Globe and Mail), “ever-insightful” (rabble.ca) and a “Leftist gadfly” (Ottawa Citizen). His six books have been praised by Noam Chomsky, Naomi Klein, William Blum, Rick Salutin and many others.
”Yves became a foreign-policy expert by working as a night doorman in Montreal...He’s in the mould of I. F. Stone, who wasted no time with politicians, who all have an agenda, but went instead straight to the public record.”
- Rick Salutin, Globe and Mail
He Who Must (Not) Be Named
Engler succeeds in marshalling a massive body of facts in specific policy areas, beginning with Harper’s radical anti-environmentalism and his acceptance of abuses by Canadian mining companies abroad. He continues with the PM’s malevolent opposition to the Arab spring, his unwavering obedience to some of the most reactionary figures ever to grace the Israeli political stage, and his undermining of Canada’s respected diplomatic tradition in favour of building a strong military.
Engler casts his net wide and comes up with some gems, including a quote from then-International Development Minister Bev Oda. In addressing a group of mining executives, Oda stated, “The mining industry is a huge contributor to a nation’s wealth and is one of the main building blocks of civilization.” There was also this pearl of wisdom from Conservative Senator Pamela Wallin: “We have also built some 44 schools where nearly eight million young Afghans are finally able to learn the basics.” If this were true, what would it say about the average class size?
In this book, however, one of several Engler has written on Canadian foreign policy, the author offers little in the way of original reporting, in spite of an impressive amount of information taken from a wide variety of sources. The result, therefore, fails to equal the sum of its parts.
For instance, many readers may have forgotten Canada’s once respected position in the world and the leading role (though Engler may disagree) the country once played in international affairs in the half-century preceding Harper’s election as Prime Minister in 2006. Canada’s presence in international affairs began with Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson. In 1957, Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize for building what would become the United Nations peacekeeping forces. It marked the beginning of a creative period in Canadian foreign policy, which continued through to the Mulroney years, with a solid Anti-Apartheid push in the Commonwealth, and extended into the sleepwalking era of Chrétien, who nonetheless provided key backing for the International Criminal Court and a landmines treaty.
Not a word of this appears in The Ugly Canadian, leaving readers without a context to judge Harper’s systematic alienation of one group of countries after another, culminating with Canada’s pathetic failure to win a temporary seat on the United Nations Security Council in 2010. In previous years, Canada would have been a shoo-in.
Some of Engler’s conclusions are accurate, while others are questionable, such as his smear of Daniel Bellemare, the Canadian Chief Prosecutor in a UN investigation into the murder of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. Bellemare had the courage to point a finger at Hezbollah, a powerful militia-cum-political party. Hezbollah has won admiration for standing up to Israeli’s bullying of Lebanon, but it is far from an innocent player. Engler also refers repeatedly to Haitian President Michel Martelly as a right-wing extremist. Yes, in his youth, Martelly had a brief association with the Duvalier regime, and true, he supported the 1991 coup against the democratically elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide, but there has been little in recent years to label him an extremist.
The Ugly Canadian, which lacks an index or notes on sources, at times uses quotes from interest groups and little-known publications that do little more than bolster the author’s position. Readers’ patience is further tried with a plodding, mechanical style of prose. Junior ministers, or ministers of state, are repeatedly misidentified as deputy ministers, a civil service rank. For instance, Harper’s ultra-partisan environment minister, Peter Kent, who earlier carried the title of Minister of State of Foreign Affairs (Americas), is labelled several times in the book as deputy foreign minister. The author ought surely to be aware of the distinction.
Despite these shortcomings, Engler’s book fills an important gap. Although someone else could have done a better job, Engler has nevertheless produced something tangible.
For The Rover–Eric Hamovitch is a Montreal writer and translator who can remember a time when Canadian foreign policy was less embarrassing.
“While millions disagree with Stephen Harper and the Conservative Party’s domestic agenda, fewer Canadians are aware of his government’s destructive foreign policy.”
This is the premise from which Yves Engler begins his examination of that policy and where it is leading us. The topics covered are wide ranging and include the environment, mining in developing countries, and increasing Canadian militarism, but there seems to be a particular emphasis, probably due to recent events, on the Middle East and the Arab world, with four chapters devoted to the Arab Spring, the Libyan campaign, Israel, and Lebanon and Iran.
Few informed readers will be surprised by much of the material in the chapter on the environment and the tar sands, but it does reveal just how close the ties are between the Prime Minister and those leading the tar sands PR battle, prime examples being Ethical Oil author Ezra Levant, who gave up his party’s nomination for a Calgary riding so that Harper could run there; and Bruce Carson, a strategist in the PMO who left that job to become head of the Canada School of Energy and the Environment (essentially an industry think-tank started with $15 million in federal money) and is described as “the spider at the centre of the web” directing tar sands lobbying efforts.
New to this reviewer are revelations of how the Harper government has trained our diplomats to be apologists for the tar sands. In February 2011, it held a retreat bringing together diplomats from European offices, officials of federal departments, and representatives from Total, Shell, Statoil, and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers to give the diplomats “an industry perspective” and information to equip them to deal with difficult questions on this subject and fight European attempts to have tar sands oil banned.
Lobbying in the U.S. is also a high priority, and Canadian ambassadors Michael Wilson and Gary Doer were both recruited to influence California’s low carbon fuel standard legislation and to vigorously promote the Keystone XL Pipeline. As Engler puts it, “Those who thought consular officials spend their days helping hard-pressed individuals retrieve lost documents or extricate themselves from difficult circumstances may be surprised that… Canada’s diplomats are really on the front line of advocacy for dirty oil.”
Canada’s global role in mining is huge, with overseas investment by Canadian mining companies rising from $30 billion in 2002 to $230 billion in 2011. Unfortunately, much of that activity involves the displacement of indigenous communities, environmental damage, and violent confrontations with protesters. A report by the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada concluded: ”Canadian companies have been the most significant group involved in unfortunate incidents in the developing world.” Instead of trying to rein in the activities of these companies, the Harper government has opposed the recommendations of a roundtable on mining practices and voted against a private member’s bill on corporate accountability.
It did appoint a Corporate Social Responsibility Councillor, but she has no power to take action without the consent of the company being investigated! Particularly troubling is support by CIDA for mining projects, as it places the moral weight of the agency on the side of the company, implying an ethical stamp of approval for particular projects. Again, Canadian diplomats have been enlisted to pressure foreign governments not to enact stricter mining laws in Ecuador and to serve mining interests in Mongolia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Engler’s chapter on the Arab Spring highlights just how slow Canada was to distance itself from the Mubarak government in Egypt, support for repression in Bahrein, and for Saudi interference in the unrest there. More surprisingly, he shows that Canada and the West rejected ceasefire proposals from the Gaddafi regime in Libya without attempting to test their validity, and that Canada actually armed the rebels in contravention of international law by providing them with an unmanned aerial drone.
As Engler sees it, the two common themes of Harper’s foreign policy are growing militarism and support for corporate interests above all others. The militarism has been evident in the conduct of the war in Afghanistan and in the Libyanoperation, while the support for business is perhaps clearest in Latin America. In recent years, Canada was quick to support coups in Paraguay and Honduras that replaced duly elected governments with regimes more friendly to foreign firms.
Conservative policy towards China offers an example of a turnaround apparently motivated by business interests. Stephen Harper started out by proclaiming his concern for human rights violations in China and stating that he would not sacrifice those concerns for the sake of trade. But that is precisely what he has done by opening six trade offices in China and encouraging sales of military equipment, surveillance technology, and tar sands oil to that country.
It is not possible here to deal with all the foreign policy issues related to the Conservatives’ neoliberal agenda that Engler covers, for he has written a comprehensive treatment of the subject in clear and understandable language. He ends by suggesting that a multi-issue network or movement, perhaps with a nationwide popular education campaign along the lines of “Stop Harper’s Crimes Against Humanity,” be formed to oppose this agenda because groups working individually are not strong enough to have an impact, and he includes a list of resources for activists.
—by Frank Bayerl, CCPA Monitor, Nov. 2012
For the first time in 60 years, Canada embarrassingly lost its 2010 bid for a seat at the United Nations Security Council. We lost because African, Arab and Muslim countries voted against us.
Our country was also denied participation in the newly formed Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, an economic and political bloc of more than 30 countries of Central and South America.
At the annual international climate change conferences, delegates have repeatedly voted to give Canada the Fossil Fool award because of our obstruction of the negotiations.
These are some of the many examples that Montreal author Yves Engler cites in his new book, The Ugly Canadian: Stephen Harper’s Foreign Policy.
Engler explains that it is the “Harper-led Conservative government’s militaristic and corporate-oriented foreign policy” that has led to Canada’s worsening international reputation since 2006.
The Ugly Canadian is an important update and expansion of Engler’s earlier work, The Black Book of Canadian Foreign Policy (Fernwood Publishing, 2009).
Using documents retrieved through access to information laws, embassy cables from WikiLeaks, scholarly articles and media sources, he pieces together a more complete and current picture of Canada’s foreign policy.
His thorough research reveals the pernicious political and economic motives behind the federal government’s actions around the world.
For example, in 2009, Canada delayed the debt forgiveness of Congo, one of the poorest countries on the African continent, to force it to give concessions to Canadian mining companies, such as Vancouver-based First Quantum Minerals.
On behalf of Barrick Gold and Bear Creek Mining, the federal government lobbied for the reform of mining laws in Chile and Peru to be more favourable to Canadian mining interests.
However, Engler explains how Canadian mining operations continuously displace communities, destroy ecosystems and provoke violence.
In 2009, indigenous people were killed protesting Canadian mine sites in Mexico and El Salvador. Yet, a year later, the federal government refused to pass the Act Respecting Corporate Accountability for the Activities of Mining, Oil or Gas Corporations in Developing Countries.
Last year, protesters in England presented Canada’s natural resource minister with an award for “greenwash propagandist of the year” after the minister gave a lecture promoting the Alberta oilsands at the London School of Economics.
Europeans are rightfully angry that Canadian officials have been lobbying to weaken their environmental regulations like the European Union Fuel Quality Directive.
With irony, Engler describes the double standards of Canada’s rebuke of Iran for its alleged nuclear program and our acceptance of Israel’s known nuclear arsenal. Our pro-Israeli stance led Canada to shamefully vote against allowing Palestine to become a member of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization last year. Over 100 countries voted to permit Palestine in UNESCO; Canada was one of only 14 to reject its membership.
The author further exposes the duplicity in our international policy. He explains how Canada’s claim to champion democracy internationally is made disingenuous by our support for the right-wing coups in Haiti, Honduras and Paraguay that overthrew populist leaders, and our arming of authoritarian regimes in Jordan, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia against mass uprisings.
Engler is especially critical of Canada’s combat mission in Afghanistan and our bombing of Libya that led to the death of innocent civilians and destruction of critical infrastructure. “We should be clear that foreign military interventions kill and that the Conservatives’ climate policy is devastating many of the world’s most vulnerable,” Engler writes.
The Ugly Canadian is an eye-opening account of how our country is no longer a respected middle power that truly values democracy, the environment and peace abroad.
To clean up our image and change course on our foreign policy, Engler believes that Canadians need to unite and take action. Engler proposes a countrywide campaign to “stop Harper’s crimes against humanity” and urges Canadians to get involved in local anti-war, green and solidarity organizations.
He concludes: “We absolutely need to shake Canadians from their complacency.”
Tamara Lorincz is a member of the Halifax Peace Coalition and the Canadian Voice of Women for Peace.
BOOK LAUNCH AND SIGNING: Thursday, 7-8:30 p.m., Burke Building Theatre B, Saint Mary’s University, 5932 Inglis St., Halifax; Friday, noon-1:30 p.m., Room 104, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, 6061 University Ave., Halifax; Friday, 7-8:30 p.m., Fables Club, 259 Main St., Tatamagouche.
For more information, visit www.cjmpe.org.
—The Chronicle Herald, Nov. 11, 2012
—by Tamara Lorincz
K’jipuktuk (Halifax)–Yves Engler’s latest book, The Ugly Canadian: Stephen Harper’s Foreign Policy, deals with a broad swath of Canadian foreign policy topics.
Chapter by chapter, Engler methodically and in detail documents the state of Canadian foreign policy as it has unfolded over roughly the last 10 years. There are chapters on Canada’s foreign policy as it relates to Libya, Israel, Lebanon, Iran, Haiti, Afghanistan, arms sales and militarism. Not always immediately associated with foreign policy, but no less relevant to Canada’s global agenda, is Engler’s chapter on Canadian efforts to influence US and European public opinion on the tar sands. To build his case, Engler frequently relies on information found in mainstream media and public domain government sources.
Reading the book, a couple of things become clear. First of all, Canada’s foreign policy is an ugly thing indeed, catering to an interplay of corporate greed (mining, arms trade, tar sands oil exports), born-again Christian ideologies (Israel), and an eagerness to align with US interests (Libya, Syria, and the list goes on and on). Engler argues that getting people to see this ugliness is difficult, but absolutely crucial. And Engler is optimistic that it can be done.
Three weeks into a book tour that will find him in Nova Scotia by the middle of next week, the Halifax Media Co-op caught up with Yves Engler in Nanaimo, BC, and spoke of a variety of topics.
On the failure of traditional Canadian political parties to effectuate positive change in Canada’s foreign policy:
“The tendency of the NDP is by and large to go along with the government’s foreign policy. Only when grassroots are organizing and pressuring the party will you see a more effective opposition in parliament.
“The abduction of Jim Manley and 30 others in international waters by by the Israeli military and the absolute silence from the NDP really illustrate this. Think about it. The NDP does not even speak up when a former NDP parliamentarian is affected.”
On the failure of mainstream media:
“It is true that I find a lot of my information at CBC.ca or the Ottawa Citizen, whatever. And once in a while there will be a critical article buried somewhere, but mostly what is missing is the proper context.
“For instance, mainstream media will provide an article on carbon emission, but what you typically don’t hear is that people are already dying as a result of climate change. Climate change is contributing to the death of 400,000 people annually. You don’t hear about this because these are the very poorest people, far away in developing countries.”
On Canadians’ lackadaisical attitude towards foreign policy:
“It is true that most people don’t see foreign policy as important. It is also understandable, people focus on what is immediate, their day-to-day life. But the situation isn’t portrayed correctly in that consequences aren’t fully exposed. Harper’s tar sand lobby feels like something happening far away but will directly affect us as it results in accelerated global warning. We need to break through that barrier. Talk, rallies, demonstrations, whatever it takes.
“And then you will find that you can make a difference. When Pierre Pettigrew, Minister of Foreign Affairs, ran for re-election in 2006 we very aggressively pursued him, constantly reminding the public of his role in Haiti. He lost, and most agree that our actions contributed to his electoral loss.”
On Ships Start Here, and the emphasis placed on good jobs in Nova Scotia, rather than the reality of building warships and their intended purpose:
”First of all, it is understandable that this is how people react. People need to live, and they need the sense of purpose work often provides. But there is no reason why that kind of money couldn’t buy jobs that are much more productive. Canadian combat ships have been used to perform provocative manoeuvres along the Iranian coast, have been doing questionable patrols along Libya’s coast in the past. Is that what we really want?”
On the need for foreign policy activists to take a different approach to get their message heard:
“We really need to get to something like a foreign policy network. Right now we see many different groups with a focus on different aspects of foreign policy. Anti-war groups, supporters of the Palestinian cause, critics of Canadian mining corporations, Haiti activists, environmentalists, they need to see their commonalities. We can have a real impact and our voice can be amplified if united.”
“There are lots of reasons why it is difficult to become more like a network. There is the specialized expertise that people have build up, there are structural obstacles, funding ... For some it is difficult to even see what it is that we have in common. But this is the point of the book tour. Hopefully there will be traction. People certainly get it at the book events, but that is the abstract part, that is easy. I am hoping.”
Yves Engler will be in Halifax on Nov. 15 and 16, and in Tatamagouche on Nov. 16. Visit his website for details.
This interview has been lightly edited for clarity.
On October 16, 2012 Quebec Premier Pauline Marois addressing the
Institut Français des Relations Internationales in Paris spoke fondly
of the “openness, mediation and multilateralism” of past Canadian
governments, which were noted for their enthusiastic multilateralism
and support of the UN.
“The present foreign policy of Canada does not correspond to our
values or our interests,” Marois said, citing differences between
Quebec and Canada on climate change. She may have added on several
other fronts as well.
It is on these fronts that the brilliant Canadian researcher Yves
Engler hangs his well documented tale, the Ugly Canadian It is all
here, chapter and verse, impeccably researched how a once respected
country, ours, has become an ugly outlier on the international stage,
an embarrassment to the vast majority of Canadians who cherished our
reputation as honest brokers concerned about justice and human rights.
This all came home to me when a friend who has worked for decades as a
Canadian diplomat opined that wherever he goes today on assignment
the question arises, “Whatever happened to Canada?”
Into the light
Yves Engler’s book sheds a welcome light on the Harper governments
international policies. Most Canadians are unaware of how far we have
sunk. The Harperites have been extremely clever in their stealthy
boulversement of our much respected presence on the global stage. The
author sums up this noxious trend in a phrase “militaristic and
corporate oriented foreign policy.”
Engler begins with our “sabotage of international environmental
efforts” in his chapter on Tar Sands Diplomacy. It is difficult to
stomach.The Prime Minister once famously stated that “ the Kyoto
accord a “socialist scheme” designed to suck money out of rich
countries. While he has softened his rhetoric in time, the government
still discharges more greenhouse gases than any other nation. It has
been at the forefront at reversing any progress in the direst problem
to ever face the human community.Engler points out that we were the
first country to abandon the Kyoto Protocol. The new “rogue elephant”
and its spokesman PM Harper has consistently muzzled government
scientists and acted as a shill for the oil industry.
The Oil Man
As a Calgary MP Harper has deep ties to “Dallas North”.His own father
was an Imperial Oil executive and he continues to defend ” one of the
filthiest sources of fuel in the world. The author graphically
summarizes the “environmentally destructive processes” of bitumen
extraction detailed by writers Andrew Nikiforuk, Tony Clarke and Wayne
Marsden in their readable books: ”It takes two to three times more
energy to extract a barrel of tar sands oil than a conventional barrel
of crude.” This chapter outlining the “mammoth ecological toll” makes
for sobering reading. It remains to be seen if the US will buy oil
with such a huge carbon footprint. The Harper government sends its
lobbyists everywhere beating the drum for this “made in Canada”
product. The saddest drum beater of all is former NDP premier and now
ambassador to USA, Gary Doer.
“Mining the World” is maybe the most sobering wake-up call of all.
Most of us are unaware of the ugly Canadians active around the world
in mining industries.They are busy as bees ‘razing mountain tops,
poisoning rivers and ignoring indigenous rights” around the
world.This is no mom and pop business either. It is a $210 billion
industry. We are a mining powerhouse.The Tory government, true to
form, has lobbied extensively to quash more stringent rules regarding
environmental standards and human rights protection. No surprise here
given the virtual “voluntary standards, run by the industry itself”
Canadians have seen in the meat packing scandal in Alberta. Ontarians
well remember Walkerton and the negligence around safety standards in
the trucking industry under the Harris government. John Baird, Tony
Clement and Jim Flaherty are now active doing the bidding of
corporations on the national stage. Regarding our shameless lobbying
on the mining front Engler refers to Massachusetts professor Anthony
Bebbington‘s appearance before a standing committee on Foreign
Affairs. The latter quoted one Latin American environmental minister
“I don’t know if Canada has been quite so discredited in its history.”
The Arab Spring
Chapter The Arab Spring details the slavish following of american
foreign policy when confronted with the eruption of democratic
impulses in Northern Africa. Despite the boiler plate and disengenuous
PR fodder of” being for and supporting democracy” Engler shows just
how craven our “new” foreign policy is.It supported Egyptian dictator
Mubarak right to the end, the reason being its slavish support of
Israel.Mubarak for decades had done Israel’s bidding while enriching
himself and his cronies. similarly there was no protest against
Marshall Law in Bahrain, the home of the US Fifth Fleet. Similar
silence on the repressive policies of oil rich and US pal Saudi
Arabia. All in all we have been Charlie McCarthy, the pliant radio
dummy on Edgar Bergen’s American knee.
On this point of supporting ugly regimes Engler adds a brief chapter
on the Harper government’s silence on Israel’s continuous support of
the apartheid state, Israel.Readers would be well advised to read
Engler’s earlier book Canada and israel: Building Apartheid. It is
nothing short of a tour de force of extremely valuable research on the
The author continues with chapters on Libya, Lebanon and Iran and an
excellent precis on our reinvention as a pathetic warrior nation.It’s
all here- those pricey F-16’s which has embarrassed the government,
the truly shocking defence budget 2.3 times that of the peak of the
Cold War, the $23 billion 2012 DND budget at a time of fiscal
restraint, those awful TV ads which kept screaming FIGHT, the deep-
sixing of our peacekeeping tradition, the weakening of arms control
measures, the constant promotion of ourselves as “a warrior nation”.
the lying about extending our mission in Afghanistan, the toleration
of torture by prisoners turned over to the Afghan army, certainly a
betrayal of our long tradition of fomenting human rights.
Engler has written previously on our betrayal of democracy in
Haiti.Here he ads eye-opening revelations about our support of coups
in Paraguay and Honduras, two countries which caught the Latin
American fever of democracy building and improving the living
conditions of their poorest citizens.Hence the Tory disgust as well
with Hugo Chavez and his popularity in Venezuela.Imagine organizing a
country’s economy around the vast majority of its citizens!
This is a brilliant little book outlining Canada’s radical shift to
the right, our privileging of neoliberal reforms which harm the global
poor and their environments, our “pro corporate/pro empire” politics
which has betrayed our longstanding reputation as an “honest broker”
which reflexively respected f human rights and development.
Why has this happened?
The author concludes “to please the most reactionary, short sighte
sectorsof the party’s base-the ideological right, evangelical
Christians, right wing Zionists ,Islamophobes, the Cold Warriors ,
the military-industrial complex as well as mining and oil executives.”
This is also an important book.The research is thorough,its conclusion
inescapably sad. The author invites us at the end to do something
about it. He simply says: “Please join a group working on these
issues. The world needs your help.”